For every gallon of wine, wineries can use as much as 13 gallons of water to produce it: seven for irrigation and another six in the winery, according to figures released by University of California (Davis). Researchers there want to reduce that amount to one gallon of water per gallon of wine\u2014and soon.\r\n\r\nWhy the rush? Most winemakers around the world report the same story: Hot summers and severe droughts are taxing water supplies.\r\n\r\nDry farming is almost \u201cuniversally do-able\u201d and delivers better quality with little decrease in yield.\r\n\r\nIn the vineyards, winegrowers like Chris Howell at Cain Winery in Napa Valley are using new rootstocks and examining those used before modern irrigation. The focus is on rootstocks that will grow deeper in search of moisture and have increased water storage capacity.\r\n\r\nDavid Block, department chair of viticulture and enology at UC Davis, is also focusing on better irrigation.\r\n\r\n\u201cThe next wave will be to deliver water more precisely only to the plants that need it,\u201d he says. That\u2019s being done with water and sap-flow sensors for selected plants as well as aerial imaging of vineyard soils and plant growth.\r\n\r\nOnce the only option in semi-arid areas\u2014and still the norm in much of Europe\u2014there is a worldwide trend to return to dry farming.\r\n\r\nIn Chile\u2019s Colchagua Valley, Aurelio Montes says modified dry-farming techniques employed in Montes vineyards require \u201cabout 65 percent less water than we normally have used.\u201d\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nIn Napa Valley, Frog\u2019s Leap Winery\u2019s John Williams has long been a guru of dry farming, using selected rootstocks and tilling. \u201cThere are no tricks here,\u201d he says, adding that dry farming is almost \u201cuniversally do-able,\u201d and delivers better quality with little decrease in yield.\r\n\r\nSimilar advances at wineries focus less water usage and increased recycling. Australia\u2019s Pikes winery in Clare Valley has achieved 100 percent water recycling in a program started in 2001; all winery water is reused as irrigation. In South Africa, coastal producers use the Atlantic\u2019s icy waters as a winery coolant and even as an aging cellar.\r\n\r\nRather than relying on rivers, lakes and aquifers for water, some wineries are going back to sourcing \u201csky water.\u201d In Santa Cruz, California, Silver Mountain Winery collects rainfall on its 6,000 square feet of steel roofing, which amounts to 30,000 gallons. Solar-powered pumps direct water to where it\u2019s needed.\r\n\r\n\u201cNo water leaves this property,\u201d says Silver Mountain\u2019s Jerold O\u2019Brien.